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By degrees they begin to decrease; and in the decrepitude of old age, the sensations are blunted, the sentiments weak, and the intellectual faculties almost or entirely suppressed. {216} We may find in the laughter of the child, within the period of the first three years, pretty clear indications of the development of a rude perception of amusing incongruities in dress and behaviour. With a man of a little more firmness, the effect is somewhat more permanent. In _Culture and Anarchy_, in _Literature and Dogma_, Arnold was not occupied so much in establishing a criticism as in attacking the uncritical. _Monumental._ When we turn to the monumental data, to the architecture and structural relics of the ancient Americans, we naturally think first of the imposing stone-built fortresses of Peru, the massive pyramids and temples of Yucatan and Mexico, and the vast brick-piles of the Pueblo Indians. It is one of the beauties of public library work that the points at which it touches life in general are many. If we examine, however, why the spectator distinguishes with such admiration the condition of the rich and the great, we shall find that is is not so much upon account of the superior ease or pleasure which they are supposed to enjoy, as of the numberless artificial and elegant contrivances for promoting this ease or pleasure. By an instinct of pride, however, they set themselves upon a level with their equals in age and situation; and, with courage and firmness, maintain their proper station among their companions. The statistical record of this will be found in the class percentages of circulation. The two are analogous: the moral code must give effect to that first and universal principle of ethics expressed thus, “Do unto others as you would they should do unto you,” which is only another way of saying, “You may expect others to treat you as you intend to treat them in similar circumstances.” Hence the standardization of rules of conduct becomes a principle of Utility. The different diminutives of the Italian, and of some other languages, do, in reality, sometimes express a great variety of different modifications in the substances denoted by those nouns which undergo such variations. Robertson’s examination is, we believe, irrefragable: that Shakespeare’s _Hamlet_, so far as it is Shakespeare’s, is a play dealing with the effect of a mother’s guilt upon her son, and that Shakespeare was unable to impose this motive successfully upon the “intractable” material of the old play. Yet there are possibilities for Jonson even now. Though he is sometimes as immoveable as a statue, yet he is for the most part moving about, and has a singular mode of treading with his feet like one who has been accustomed to a tread-mill, lifting them higher than necessary, and setting them down cautiously,—sometimes pulling off his shoes—sometimes, however, quickening all his motions, as if something required extraordinary haste and dispatch; and thus he marches about like some star-gazer treading on precious and frail materials; seldom more than a few moments in one place, and in all his movements in different rooms and parts and corners of his gallery, stairs, and airing court, and in all his operations and mutterings it is evident that he, in his imagination, is performing some essential part of his _mighty task of paying the national debt_, for when any of his operations or mutterings are interrupted, like one whose studies are suddenly broken in upon at some unlucky moment, he seems vexed and unhinged; sometimes bursting into a violent passion, when he is most eloquent in the use of scurrilous epithets (a proof that to use abusive epithets requires very little mind) calling the person who has impeded him in his great work, low-bred, mean, dirty scoundrel, rascal, villain, thief, vagabond, madman; accusing him of being the cause of the loss of many millions to the nation, threatening him with the direst punishment, particularly that he shall be whipped in the air. or was this semblance of a meaning a part of his fun, his playful way of punishing the “grown up” for reading a child’s book? This form is one illustration of the eternal struggle of art against education, of the literary artist against the continuous deterioration of language. Neither their predecessors nor their successors expressed themselves in verse; Parmenides and Empedocles were persons who mingled with genuine philosophical ability a good deal of the emotion of the founder of a second-rate religious system. Conscience is at once the standard and the refuge of orthodox and fanatic, patriot and anarchist–according as they are described by admirer or detractor–but, let us believe with Lecky,[4] least often of the genuine hypocrite. This is what they call attacking principles and sparing persons: they spare the persons indeed of men in power (who have places to give away), and attack the characters of the dead or the unsuccessful with impunity! The Greek islands being secure from the invasion of land armies, or from naval forces, which were in those days but little known, seem, upon that account too, to have got before the continent in all sorts of civility and improvement. When in this terrible state, she had more power to engage one’s commiseration, than any patient I ever had. The picture, as it is, is good enough for the age and for the public. Such characters will not only sneer at your well-meant endeavours, and keep silent as to your good qualities, but are out of countenance, ‘quite chop-fallen,’ if they find you have a cup of water, or a crust of bread. Though the eye of the most ordinary spectator readily distinguishes between what is called a dancing step and any other step, gesture, or motion, yet it may not perhaps be very easy to express what it is which constitutes this distinction. When we consider the condition of the great, in those delusive colours in which the imagination is apt to paint it, it seems to be almost the abstract idea of a perfect and happy state. In 1868 at Verdiersville, Virginia, a suspected murderer was compelled to touch the body of a woman found murdered in a wood; and in 1869, at Lebanon, Illinois, the bodies of two murdered persons were exhumed and two hundred of the neighbors were marched past and made to touch them in the hope of identifying the criminals.[1164] In Germany, in the seventeenth century, there was a recognized formula for the administration of the ordeal. Nor must we forget how great a contribution he made to comic character-drawing in his dialogue, where the man and the woman, at once attracted and repelled, use their witty tongues with excellent effect, and where woman, though now and then chastised, has a large part assigned her in curing man of his follies and developing what is best in him. When we are under the greatest bodily pain, he observed, we shall always find, if we attend to it, that it is not the suffering best critical thinking editing sites ca of the present instant which chiefly torments us, but either the agonizing remembrance of the past, or the yet more horrible dread of the future. Of late years this opinion has been earnestly combatted by M. If you are told that one of your assistants is “lucky”, do not laugh it away. But, though bound, this monster endeavors to seize each soul that crosses the river. Thirdly, breaches of the rules of veracity. The same child that laughs at a new sound to-day will to-morrow, when in another mood, be disturbed by a quite similar surprise of the ear. The path of life is stripped of its freshness and beauty; and as we grow acquainted with them, we become indifferent to weal or woe. For instance, the fondness displayed by a mistress for a lover (as she is about to desert him for a rival) is not mere hypocrisy or art to deceive him, but nature, or the reaction of her pity, or parting tenderness best critical thinking editing sites ca towards a person she is about to injure, but does not absolutely hate. It then occurred to him, that, if the Earth was supposed to revolve every day round its axis, from west to east, all the heavenly bodies would appear to revolve, in a contrary direction, from east to west. Aristotle, a philosopher who certainly knew the world, in drawing the character of the magnanimous man, paints him with many features which, in the two last centuries, were commonly ascribed to the Spanish character: that he was deliberate in all his resolutions; slow, and even tardy, in all his actions; that his voice was grave, his speech deliberate, his step and motion slow; that he appeared indolent and even slothful, not at all disposed to bustle about little matters, but to act with the most determined and vigorous resolution upon all great and illustrious occasions: that he was not a lover of danger, or forward to expose himself to little dangers, but to great dangers; and that, when he exposed himself to danger, he was altogether regardless of his life. What, we ask, is this for? Holcroft—“For how should the soul of Socrates inhabit the body of a stocking-weaver?” This was pat to the point (you know our friend is a hosier and haberdasher) I came full with it to keep an appointment I had with Pinch, began a game, quarrelled with him in the middle of it on purpose, went up stairs to dress, and as I was washing my hands in the slop-basin (watching my opportunity) turned coolly round and said, “It’s impossible there should be any sympathy between you and me, Mr. The child having been burned by the fire and only knowing what the pain of a burn is from his recollecting to have felt it himself, as soon as he finds himself in danger of it again, has a very vivid recollection of the pain it formerly gave him excited in his mind; and by a kind of sudden transposition substituting this idea in the place of his immediate apprehension, in thinking of the danger to which he is exposed he confounds the pain he is to feel with that which he has already actually felt, and in reality shrinks from the latter. The power is that of collective minds; suggestion an effect of its activity, not a derived essence. Booksellers tell us that many buyers of books are governed in their choice by the color of the covers, and I have suspected that some librarians are influenced in the same way. I feel it accordingly as something which is not merely an affection of the hand, but altogether external to and independent of my hand. The case of the man with the wooden {132} leg is an obvious example of this. Flaxman is another living and eminent artist, who is distinguished by success in his profession and by a prolonged and active old age. This propriety of choosing and rejecting, though originally pointed out to us, and as it were recommended and introduced to our acquaintance by the things, and for the sake of the things, chosen and rejected; yet when we had once become thoroughly acquainted with it, the order, the grace, the beauty which we discerned in this conduct, the happiness which we felt resulted from it, necessarily appeared to us of much greater value than the actual obtaining of all the different objects of choice, or the actual avoiding of all those of rejection. These it is often impossible to accommodate to all the different shades and gradations of circumstance, character, and situation, to differences and distinctions which, though not imperceptible, are, by their nicety and delicacy, often altogether undefinable. Nicholas, Yarmouth. The former, too, are the passions of which the immediate feeling or sensation is agreeable to the person principally concerned; the latter, those of which it is disagreeable. Is it inviting or repellent, friendly or coldly hostile, helpful or indifferent? What more could you ask? In English witch-trials, this method of torture was not infrequently resorted to, without the limitation of time to which it was restricted by the more experienced jurists of Italy.[1834] Another form of torture used in Great Britain, which doubtless proved exceedingly efficacious, was the “pricking” adopted to discover the insensible spot, which, according to popular belief, was one of the invariable signs of a witch. The loudest and most frequently repeated affirmations carry the most weight. One principle subject of his furious raving, was his favourite doctrine of Election; or rather, perhaps, I ought to say, his blasphemous doctrine of Reprobation. In the earlier drama these conventions are merely a framework, or an alloy necessary for working the metal; the metal itself consisted of unique emotions resulting inevitably from the circumstances, resulting or inhering as inevitably as the properties of a chemical compound. It is to be feared that the feeling of Massinger is simple and overlaid with received ideas. In the one, it was the effect of native genius, grace, and spirit; in the other, comparatively speaking, of pride or custom. Allow his principle, the universality of gravity, and that it decreases as the squares of the distance increase, and all the appearances, which he joins together by it, necessarily follow. The analogy was that of the catalyst. In other words, we detect the dim beginnings of that complex feeling or attitude which we call humour. Her lucid intervals are considerable; yet she always retains so painful a recollection of this fact, that though fond of talking of all other occurrences of her former life, she studiously evades all conversation, or any question that at all alludes to this; so much so, that from this fact, as well as some others, I think it highly probable that even her present less violent, and less frequent paroxysms, are partly brought on by associations which awaken the same agony of mind and feelings of indignation as she then suffered. A hint, only, on their modes of combination, can be given here. They are evidently from the same root. At the same time it will be found that the library is adding current books of doubtful value. Moreover, if he endured its application three times without confession, he was discharged acquitted as one in whose favor God would work a miracle[1602]—thus showing how torture was assimilated in the popular mind to the ordeal which it had supplanted. As long as the practice existed, it was therefore necessary to invest it with every solemnity, and to guard it with penalties that would obviate some of its disadvantages. We cannot strive to obtain what we already possess: we cannot give to that which already exists a double reality. Has this account the note of familiarity with these ways? _Thus_ it is not astonishing that a kid, taken from the uterus of its mother, preferred broom-tops to other vegetables which were presented to it. This would not have happened (so the Member for Old Sarum contended) had Addison laid himself out to argue at his club, or to speak in public; for then his ear would have caught the necessary modulations of sound arising out of the feeling of the moment, and he would have transferred them unconsciously to paper. A judicious mixture of opposition and harmony of interest seems to be most favourable to a rich production of mirth. A discourse on laughter can remove this kind of objection, if at all, only by showing in its own treatment of the subject that serious thought may touch even the gossamer wing of the merry {4} sprite and not destroy; that all things, and so the lightest, are things to be comprehended, if only we can reach the right points of view; and that the problems which rise above the mental horizon, as soon as we begin to think about man’s humorous bent, have a quite peculiar interest, an interest in which all who can both laugh at things and ponder on them may be expected to share. How many collect statistics along special lines to assist in deciding what we shall do along those lines? S. From these causes, as well as from an increase at this time, of parental embarrassments and mortifications, (and home had always been an atmosphere of perpetual storms), from an hereditary scrofulous habit, and from his self-made morbid state, his mind was at last overwhelmed. To convince such of their error, and to illustrate the methods employed by these native American scribes, I will present and analyze several typical examples from Aztec manuscripts. Prayers were uttered to God to render judgment, litanies and psalms were sung, the material of the ordeal, whether iron or hot or cold water, was blessed with an adjuration that it would be the means of rendering a just verdict, and the accused was exorcised with an adjuration to abandon the trial if he was conscious of guilt. You sort the whole mass at once, so that while you are segregating the A’s you are at the same time collecting the B’s and all the rest of the alphabet. Logic should enrich and invigorate its decisions by the use of imagination; as rhetoric should be governed in its application, and guarded from abuse by the checks of the understanding. He lived unhappily with his wife and her friends,—instead of union and harmony, all was dislike and contradiction, perpetual storms and altercations, which had just before terminated in a separation between himself and them. Now the moon describes an ellipse about the earth, and of course must be once in every revolution nearer the earth than in any other part of her orbit; consequently she must produce a much higher tide when in this point of her orbit than in the opposite point. _Critique by M. Mr. At the time that Lord Byron thought proper to join with Mr. Abbott, Professor F. The contrary has been so often observed, and, indeed, is best critical thinking editing sites ca so very obvious, though it had never been observed, that there is nobody ignorant of it. H. When I say therefore that the human mind is naturally benevolent, this does not refer to any innate abstract idea of good in general, or to an instinctive desire of general indefinite unknown good but to the natural connection between the idea of happiness and the desire of it, independently of any particular attachment to the person who is to feel it. Many of them, on the contrary, tend rather to teach us to chicane with our own consciences, and by their vain subtilties serve to authorise innumerable evasive refinements with regard to the most essential articles of our duty. Guido was the ‘genteelest’ of painters; he was a poetical Vandyke. II.–_Of the Sense of Justice, of Remorse, and of the Consciousness of Merit._ THERE can be no proper motive for hurting our neighbour, there can be no incitement to do evil to another, which mankind will go along with, except just indignation for evil which that other has done to us. Nature, it seems, teaches us to be more averse to enter into this passion, and, till informed of its cause, to be disposed rather to take part against it. For my Part I think the Learned, and Unlearned Blockhead pretty equal; for ’tis all one to me, whether a Man talk Nonsense, or Unintelligible Sense, I am diverted and edified alike by either; the one enjoys himself less, but suffers his Friends to do it more; the other enjoys himself and his own Humour enough, but will let no body else do it in his Company. He was first required to forgive all offences as he hoped for pardon; he made confession of his sins and accepted penance, while the penitential psalms were sung customary for penitents on Ash Wednesday; if there was suspicion as to his faith he was made to swear on the altar his reliance on God rather than on the devil to manifest his innocence in the ordeal. For my own part, as I am not at all affected by the hacking and hewing which this piece of wood receives, or all the blows with which it rings, which are to me mere harmless flourishes in the air, it seems to me a very different thing. He was hardly indemnified by all his best critical thinking editing sites ca posthumous fame, ‘the flattery that soothes the dull cold ear of death,’ nor by the admiration of his friends, nor the friendship of the great, for the distortion of his person, the want of robust health, and the insignificant figure he made in the eyes of strangers, and of Lady Mary Wortley Montague. The retired and inflexible descendants of the Two Thousand Ejected Ministers and their adherents are gone with the spirit of persecution that gave a soul and body to them; and with them, I am afraid, the spirit of liberty, of manly independence, and of inward self-respect is nearly extinguished in England. When a traveller gives an account of some distant country, he may impose upon our credulity, the most groundless and absurd fictions as the most certain matters of fact. He seems to wish not so much to excite your esteem for _himself_, as to mortify _that_ for _yourself_. Though the doctrine of Demons, or being possessed, has been discarded; yet, in my opinion, it deserves a more serious consideration than medical men imagine:—it involves the true theory of mind and matter, their connection with each other, and the principles on which this connection depends, and by which it is regulated. To take some actual cases, I find a library with four per cent of history and six per cent of literature on the shelves, whereas the corresponding circulation percentages are five and seven. The man of the most exquisite humanity, is naturally the most capable of acquiring the highest degree of self-command. In _Every Man in his Humour_ there is a neat, a very neat, comedy of humours. The tirade generated by this combination is not only genuinely and highly dramatic: it is possibly poetry also. Nothing:—no mother’s fearful warnings,—nor the formidable precautions of that wiser and more loving mother, his country! If he laughs at a joke, the inventor chuckled over it to the full as much. When, for example, we observe a {135} rather sprightly gesture in the pulpit, we mentally view this action against a background which is the situation of the moment. A French actress always plays before the court; she is always in the presence of an audience, with whom she first settles her personal pretensions by a significant hint or side-glance, and then as much nature and simplicity as you please. The mind of the poet is the shred of platinum. The wise and virtuous man is at all times willing that his own private interest should be sacrificed to the public interest of his own particular order or society. After the reign of Antoninus, and, indeed, after the age of Hipparchus, who lived almost three hundred years before Antoninus, the great reputation which the earlier philosophers had acquired, so imposed upon the imaginations of mankind, that they seem to have despaired of ever equalling their renown. The family were Protestants and the murdered man had given signs of conversion to Catholicism, in imitation of his younger brother. He writes: “These houses were in length from east to west four hundred and eleven and a half [native] measures, which reduced to our [Spanish] measures make twelve hundred and thirty-four and a half yards (_varas_), and in breadth, from north to south three hundred and twenty-six measures, which are nine hundred and seventy-eight yards.” This passage has been analyzed by the learned antiquary, Senor Orozco y Berra.[407] The native measure referred to by Ixtlilxochitl was that of Tezcuco, which was identical with that of Mexico. But this masterly style of execution is very different from coarse daubing. Ages uncounted and uncountable have passed since then, but man has left indestructible evidences that even in that early morn of his existence he had explored and conquered that continent which a late generation has chosen to call “the New World.” ON THE ALLEGED MONGOLIAN AFFINITIES OF THE AMERICAN RACE.[35] Were the question I am about to discuss one of merely theoretical bearings, I should not approach it; but the widespread belief that the American tribes are genealogically connected with the Mongolians is constantly directing and coloring the studies of many Americanists, very much as did at one time the belief that the red men are the present representatives of the ten lost tribes of Israel. But, though that love of paradox, so natural to the learned, and that pleasure, which they are so apt to take in exciting, by the novelties of their supposed discoveries, the amazement of mankind, may, notwithstanding what one of his disciples tells us to the contrary, have had its weight in prompting Copernicus to adopt this system; yet, when he had completed his Treatise of Revolutions, and began coolly to consider what a strange doctrine he was about to offer to the world, he so much dreaded the prejudice of mankind against it, that, by a species of continence, of all others the most difficult to a philosopher, he detained it in his closet for thirty years together.